FRUMKIN, ISRAEL DOV (1850–1914), pioneer journalist in Ereẓ Israel. Frumkin was born in Dubrovno, Belorussia and was taken to Jerusalem when he was nine. In 1870 he started contributing to the weekly Ḥavaẓẓelet founded by his father-in-law, Israel bak . Frumkin soon became its publisher and editor, and turned it into a militant paper that attacked financial corruption in the Jerusalem community. His enemies caused the sporadic banning of his paper and even his imprisonment. In Ḥavaẓẓelet he advocated the consolidation of the separate communities in Jerusalem, higher standards in education, and the inclusion of secular studies and vocational training in the schools. His early support of agricultural settlement in Ereẓ Israel turned to adamant opposition as its secular character became apparent. Frumkin was especially hostile to Aḥad Ha-Am, the Ḥovevei Zion, and the Herzl brand of Zionsim in Ereẓ Israel. He also fiercely opposed missionary activities.   Ḥavaẓẓelet declined after the turn of the century and ceased publication in 1910. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: I. Kressel, in: Mivḥar Kitvei I.D. Frumkin (1954), 13–114, 205–29; G. Frumkin, Derekh Shofet bi-Yrushalayim (1955), opening chapters; Tidhar, 1 (1947), 489–91. (Yehuda Slutsky)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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